How To Cite Interviews In Dissertation Abstracts

Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.

Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

Citing a thesis or dissertation from a database


Last, F.M. (Date published). Title (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from database name. (Accession or Order no.)



Knight, K.A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from MLA International Bibliography Database. (Accession No. 2013420395)


Citing a thesis or dissertation from the web


Knight, K.A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from MLA International Bibliography Database. (Accession No. 2013420395)

Note: Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title.


Wilson, P.L. (2011). Pedagogical practices in the teaching of English language in secondary public schools in Parker County (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from



The APA system ofciting sources indicates the author's last name and the date, in parentheses,within the text of your paper. Check with your TA/professor to ensure that thismethod of citing is acceptable. Some TAs may prefer that you use footnotes,endnotes in the MLA style.

A.A typical citation of an entire work consists of the author's name and the yearof publication.

Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in theirpersonalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990).

Use the last name onlyin both first and subsequent citations, except when there is more than oneauthor with the same last name. In that case, use the last name and the firstinitial.

B.If the author is named in the text, only the year is cited.

According to Irene Taylor (1990), the personalities of Charlotte. . .

C. If both the nameof the author and the date are used in the text, parenthetical reference is notnecessary.

In a 1989 article, Gould explains Darwin's most successful. . .

D. Specificcitations of pages or chapters follow the year.

Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of humanrelationships, whether sexual or social" (Taylor, 1988, p. 11).

E. When thereference is to a work by two authors, cite both names each time the referenceappears.

Sexual-selection theory often has been used to explore patterns of variousinsect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) . . . Alcock and Thornhill (1983)also demonstrate. . .

F. When thereference is to a work by three to five authors, cite all the authors the firsttime the reference appears. In a subsequent reference, use the first author'slast name followed by et al. (meaning "and others").

Example of a subsequent reference:
Patterns of byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics ofcommunity college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 1997)

When the reference isto a work by six or more authors, use only the first author's name followed etal. in the first and all subsequent reference. The only exceptions to this ruleare when some confusion might result because of similar names or the sameauthor being cited. In that case, cite enough authors so that the distinctionis clear.

G.When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of theorganization as the author.

Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational andrecreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54).

H. Personalletters, telephone calls, and other material that cannot be retrieved are notlisted in References but are cited in the text.

Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas.. .

I. Parentheticalreferences may mention more than one work, particularly when ideas have beensummarized after drawing from several sources. Multiple citations should bearranged as follows.


Listtwo or more works by the same author in order of the date of publication:
   (Gould, 1987, 1989)

Differentiateworks by the same author and with the same publication date by adding anidentifying letter to each date:
   (Bloom, 1987a, 1987b)

Listworks by different authors in alphabetical order by last name, and usesemicolons to separate the references:
   (Gould, 1989; Smith, 1983; Tutwiler, 1989).












Reference:Single-Author Book

 Alverez, A. (1970). The savage god: A study ofsuicide. New York:RandomHouse.

Reference:Book with More than One Author

Natarajan, R., & Chaturvedi, R. (1983). Geology ofthe Indian Ocean.Hartford,CT: University of Hartford Press.

 Hesen,J., Carpenter, K., Moriber, H., & Milsop, A. (1983). Computers in thebusiness world. Hartford, CT: Capital Press.

. . . and so on. The abbreviation et al. (for "andothers") is not used in the reference list, regardless of the number ofauthors, although it can be used in the parentheticalcitation of material with three to five authors (after the initial citation,when all are listed) and in all parenthetical citations of material with six ormore authors.

Reference:Edition Other Than First

 Creech, P. J.(1975). Radiology and technology of the absurd (3rd ed.). Boston:Houghton-Mifflin.

Reference:An Edited Volume

Stanton, D. C. (Ed.). (1987). The female autograph:Theory and practice of autobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ifyou are referring to an article or signed chapter in an edited volume, yourreference would look like this:

Pepin,R. E. (1998). “Uses of time in the political novels of Joseph Conrad”. In C. W.Darling, Jr., J. Shields, & V. B. Villa (Eds.), Chronological looping inpolitical novels (pp. 99-135). Hartford: Capital Press.

Reference:Book Without Author or Editor Listed

Webster's NewCollegiate Dictionary. (1961). Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam.

Reference:Multi-Volume Work

To refer to a singlevolume, include only the relevant date and volume number; to refer to anothervolume in the work, create another entry.

Nadeau,B. M. (Ed.). (1994). Studies in the history of cutlery. (Vol. 4).Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Reference:Multi-Author Article in a Multi-Author Volume

Pepin, R.E., Darling,C.W., & Villa, V. (1997). Poe and the French symbolistes. In P. Wursthorn,Jr., J. Darling, & J. Brother (Eds.), The era of decadence (pp.110-145). Hartford, CT: Woodland Press.

Reference:Secondary Resources

To use material thatis quoted or paraphrased elsewhere when you do not use the original resource,your reference will include the source of your language (or idea)

Affleck,M., Allen, R., & DeLoatch, K. (Eds.) (1997). Whatever happened to thehumanities? Studies in Byzantine Intrigue, 77, 235-278.

Note:the underlined "77," above, is a volume number, not a page number.

Inyour text, you would quote or paraphrase the idea that Affleck has quoted orused, as follows:

AsVilla trenchantly points out, "Perhaps the conflict seems so strongbecause the stakes are so low." (as cited in Affleck, Allen, &DeLoatch, 1997).

Reference:Dissertation or Dissertation Abstract

When you have used anabstract of the dissertation found on microfilm in Dissertation AbstractsInternational (DAI):

Darling,C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. DissertationAbstracts International, 44(02), 221A. (University Microfilms No.AAD44-8794) Whenyou have used the actual dissertation (usually from the shelves of theUniversity where it was written, sometimes obtained through interlibrary loan):Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs.


Use inclusive pagenumbers. Do not use the abbreviations "p." or "pp."

Heyman,K. (1997). Talk radio, talk net. Yahoo!, 3, 62-83.

 Maddux,K. (1997, March). True stories of the internet patrol. NetGuide Magazine,88-92.


Reference:Periodicals Without Volume Numbers

Include month and day(if any) as well as the year. Months are not abbreviated. Military style is notused for dates (not 2 April; instead, April 2).

Pagenumbers are not condensed (not 178-88; instead 178-188). Discontinuous pagesare cited in full (1A, 9A; not 1A+).

Grover,R. (1988, September 19). A megawatt power play. Business Week, 34-35.

Reference:Newspaper Articles

If the article is"signed" (that is, you know the author's name), begin with that author'sname. (Notice the discontinuous pages.)

Poirot,C. (1998, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. TheHartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.

Ifthe author's name is not available, begin the reference with the headline ortitle in the author position. New exam for doctor of future. (1989, March 15). TheNew York Times, B-10.

Reference:Nonprint Media

    Redford, R. (Director). (1980). Ordinary people[Film]. Paramount.

(film of limited circulation):
    Holdt, D. (Producer), & Ehlers, E. (Director).(1997). River at High Summer: The St. Lawrence [Film]. (Available fromMerganser Films, Inc., 61 Woodland Street, Room 134, Hartford, CT 06105)

 Lake, F. L. (Author and speaker). (1989). Bias and organizationaldecision making [Cassette]. Gainesville: Edwards.

(Musical recording):
Barber, S. (1995). Cello Sonata. On Barber [CD]. New York: EMI RecordsLtd.

Reference:Personal Interview, Phone Conversation

Because this material isnot recoverable (i.e., it is not possible for someone else to see or hear it),it should not be listed in the list of References. It can, however, be listedparenthetically within the text. It is extremely important that what is citedin this way be legitimate and have scholarly integrity.

 (R. Wilbur, personal communication, March 28, 1968)

(phone conversation):
According to Connie May Fowler, the sources for her novel Sugar Cane were largely autobiographical(personal communication, July 22, 1997).

Reference:Government Documents

Report from theGovernment Printing Office, corporate author.

    National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Televisionand behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. A82-1195). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Reports from aDocument and Deposit Service (NTIS, ERIC) other than U.S. government

Tandy, S. (1980). Development of behavioral techniques to controlhyperaggressiveness in young children (CYC Report No. 80-3562). Washington, DC:Council on Young Children. (NTIS No. P880-14322).

 Gottfredson,L. S. (1980). How valid are occupational reinforcer pattern scores?(Report No. CSOS-R-292). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Center forSocial Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 182465)

Reference:Electronic Sources


Electroniccorrespondences, such as e-mail or discussions on bulletin boards or discussiongroups, is regarded by the APA as personal communication (like phoneconversations or memos), because it is not recoverable by others. Personalcommunications are cited only within the text and not the reference page.

Personal Communication
In the text, give the initials and surname of the author and provide as exact adate as possible.


R.W. Runyon (personal communication, April 18, 1993)

(M. Kohel, personal communication, June 28, 1993)


However, if the information is, in fact, retrievable, the followingelements are necessary for the reference page:


Author, I. (date). Title of article. Name ofperiodical: (On-line), xx.available: specify path


The date should be the year of publication or the most recentupdate. If the date of the source cannot be determined, provide the exact dateof your search.

The path information should be sufficient for someone else to retrievethe material. For example, specify the method used to find the material: theprotocol (Telnet, FTP, Internet, etc.), the directory, and the file name. Donot end the path statement with a period.


Online journal, FTP


Funder, D.C.(1994, March). Judgmental process and content:Commentary on Koehler on base-rate [9 paragraphs] Pscyoloquy [Online serial]. 5(17). AvailableFTP: Directory:pub/harnad/Psycholoquy.94.5.17.base-rate.12.funder


Online article


Klein, Donald F. (1997). Control group in Pharmacoptherapyand psychotherapy evaluations. Treatment, I. Retrieved November 16, 1997 fromthe World Wide Web:


On-line journal, subscriber-based


Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. (1993. October 2).Central vein occlusion study of photocoagulation: Manual of operations [675paragraphs]. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [On-line serial].Available: Doc No. 92



On-line abstract


Meyer, A.S., & Bock, K.. (1992). The tip-of-the-tonguephenomenon: Blocking or partical activation? [On-line]. Memory & Cognition,20. 715-726. Abstract from: DIALOG File: PsychINFO Item: 80-16351


Abstract on CD-Rom



Bower,DL. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristicsof referring and nonreferring supervisors [CD-ROM]. Abstract from: ProquestFile: Dissertation Abstracts Item: 9315947


NoAuthor Listed
On the World Wide Web, the author's name is not always available. If you havedetermined that the material nonetheless has scholarly integrity (because, say,it was published on the web-site of a responsible scholar or prestigiousuniversity), you would list that resource in your Reference page the same wayyou would treat a book without an author: begin your reference with the title.Parenthetically, within your text, use the title of the document so that yourreader can find the list on your References page and discover, then, how tofind that document.



The information for “ParentheticalCitation” and “Bibliography” was adapted from the following sources:



PurdueUniversity (2000). Reference: Electronic Sources. A guide for writingresearch papers based on styles recommended by the American PsychologicalAssociation.Retrieved August 26, 2002 from the World Wide Web:

PurdueUniversity (2000). Students Questions about References. A guide for writingresearch papers based on styles recommended by the American PsychologicalAssociation. RetrievedAugust 26, 2002 from the World Wide Web:


For moreinformation on the APA style visit: 

Ifyour TA wants you to use the MLA style, visit these websites:

MLAstyle: paper and electronic From the MLA Handbook for Writers. 5th ed.New York:  MLA, 1999 [REF LB 2369.G53 1999]

A Guide for Writing Research PapersBased on Modern Language Association
(MLA) Documentation


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