Gin Dbq Essay

The redesign has brought a great deal of uncertainty and confusion amongst APUSH teachers.  In many ways, we are all “rookie” teachers, as all of us have the challenge of implementing fundamental curricular and skills-based changes into our classrooms.

One of the more significant changes is to the structure of one essay on the AP exam, the Document Based question (DBQ).  The rubric for the DBQ was previously a more holistic essay that combined a strong thesis, and use of documents and outside information to support the argument.  This has been transformed into a much more structured and formulaic skills-based rubric.  The change has led to a healthy debate about the pros and cons of both types of essays, but in general the core of the essay has remained the same: write a thesis and support it with evidence in the form of documents and outside information.  If students continue to apply these basic writing skills, they are likely to earn 3 or 4 out of the seven total points for the Document Based Question.

In this post, we will explore one of these points students will be looking to earn to help their chances at passing the APUSH exam this May: the Contextualization point.

What is Contextualization?

According to the College Board, contextualization refers to a:

Historical thinking skill that involves the ability to connect historical events and processes to specific circumstances of time and place as well as broader regional, national, or global processes.
(College Board AP Course and Exam Description, AP US History, Fall 2015)

Contextualization is a critical historical thinking skill that is featured in the newly redesigned course. In my opinion, this is a skill of fundamental importance for students to utilize in the classroom.  Often times, students find history difficult or boring because they don’t see connections between different historical time periods and the world they live in today.  They assume that events occur in a vacuum, and don’t realize that the historical context is critical in helping explain people’s beliefs and points of view in that period of time.  Putting events into context is something I always thought was important, but now that the College Board explicitly has established the skill, it has forced me to be more proactive in creating lessons and assignments that allow students to utilize this way of thinking.

The place that contextualization is most directly relevant on the actual AP exam itself is the Document Based Question.  In order to earn the point for contextualization, students must:

Situate historical events, developments, or processes within the broader regional, national, or global context in which they occurred in order to draw conclusions about their relative significance.
(College Board AP Course and Exam Description, AP US History, Fall 2015)

In other words, students are asked to provide background before jumping right into their thesis and essay and paint a picture of what is going on at the time of the prompt.  Although there is no specific requirement as to where contextualization should occur, it makes natural sense to place it in the introduction right before a thesis point.  Placing this historical background right at the beginning sets the stage for the argument that will occur in the body of the essay, and is consistent with expectations many English teachers have in how to write an introduction paragraph.

I explain contextualization to students by using the example of Star Wars.  Before the movie starts, the film begins with “A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away…” and continues with background information on the characters, events, and other information that is crucial to understanding the film.  Without this context, the viewer would not know what is going on, and might miss key events or be lost throughout the film.  This is what contextualization aims to do in student essays.  It sets the stage for their thesis, evidence, and argument that is to follow.

Contextualization vs. Historical Context

One aspect of the DBQ rubric that can be a bit confusing initially is that students are asked to do this contextualization, but there is also another area which gives them the option to use historical context.  So what is the difference?

Contextualization refers to putting the entire essay into a broader context (preferably in the introduction).  However, when writing their essays, students are also required to analyze four of the documents that they utilize by either examining the author’s point of view, describing the intended audience of the source, identifying the author’s purpose or putting the source into historical context. The latter sounds similar to contextualization (and it is essentially the same skill), but historical context is only focused on the specific document being analyzed, not the entire essay, like the contextualization point.  For example, if a document is a map that shows slavery growing dramatically from 1820 to 1860, a student might point out that this growth can be explained in the context of the development of the cotton gin, which made the production of cotton much more profitable and let to the spread of slavery in the Deep South.  While essentially the same skill, historical context focuses on one specific document’s background.

Examples of Successful Student Contextualization Points

One of the biggest pitfalls that prevent students from earning the contextualization point is that they are too brief or vague.  In general, it would be difficult for students to earn the point if they are writing only a sentence or two.  Early in the year, I assigned students a DBQ based on the following prompt:

Evaluate the extent in which the Civil War was a turning point in the lives of African Americans in the United States.  Use the documents and your knowledge of the years 1860-1877 to construct your response.

This was the third DBQ we had written, and students were now getting brave enough to move beyond a thesis and document analysis and started attempting to tackle the contextualization point. However, the attempts were all over the map. One student wrote:

The Civil War was a bloody event that led to the death of thousands of Americans.

Of course this is a true statement, but is extremely vague.  What led to the Civil War?  Why was it so deadly?  Without any specific detail, this student could not earn the contextualization point.

Another student wrote:

Slavery had existed for hundreds of years in the United States.  It was a terrible thing that had to be abolished.

Again, this is a drive-by attempt at earning contextualization.  It mentions things that are true, but lacks any meaningful details or explanation that would demonstrate understanding of the time period in discussion.  What led to the beginning of slavery in the colonies?  How did it develop?  What made it so horrible?  How did individuals resist and protest slavery?  These are the types of details that would add meaning to contextualization.

One student nailed it.  She wrote:

The peculiar institution of slavery had been a part of America’s identity since the founding of the original English colony at Jamestown.  In the early years, compromise was key to avoiding the moral question, but as America entered the mid 19th century sectional tensions and crises with popular sovereignty, Kansas, and fugitive slaves made the issue increasingly unavoidable.  When the Civil War began, the war was transformed from one to simply save the Union to a battle for the future of slavery and freedom in the United States.

Now THAT is contextualization!  It gives specific details about the beginning of slavery and its development.  It discusses attempts at compromise, but increasing sectional tensions that led to the Civil War.  The writer paints a vivid and clear picture of the situation, events, and people that set the stage for the Civil War.  Students don’t want to write a 6-8 sentence paragraph (they will want to save time for their argument in the body), but they need to do more than write a vague sentence that superficially addresses the era.

Strategies for Teaching Contextualization to Students

Analyze Lots of Primary Sources
One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ is for students to practice reading and comprehending primary source texts, particularly texts that are written by people who use very different language and sentence structure from today.  This helps them understand and analyze documents, but it also can be helpful in practicing contextualization.  Looking at different perspectives and points of view in the actual historical time periods they are learning is key in allowing students to understand how the era can impact beliefs, values and events that occur.

Assign Many DBQ Assessments and Share Specific Examples
The more often students write DBQs, the more comfortable students will get with the entire process and skill set involved, including contextualization.  One thing that has been especially successful in my classroom is to collect a handful of student attempts at the contextualization point and share them with students.  Students then get to examine them and look at effective and less effective attempts at earning contextualization.  Often the best way for students to learn what to do or how to improve is to see what their classmates have done.

Incorporating In-Class Activities
The course is broken into nine distinct time periods from 1491 to present.  In each period or unit students are assigned activities that force them to put a specific policy, event, or movement into context.  For example, we did lecture notes on the presidency of JFK, learning about the Man on the Moon Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis, and creation of the Peace Corps.  Students had to write 3-4 sentences that asked them to put these events in historical context using the Cold War.  This allowed students to understand that each of these seemingly unrelated historical events were shaped by the tension between the United States and Soviet Union: winning the space race, stopping a communist nuclear threat less than 100 miles from Florida, and spreading goodwill into nations that might otherwise turn to communism all are strategies the United States used to thwart the Soviet threat.  By doing this activity, students gain an appreciation for how historical context shapes events and decisions of the day.

Teach Cause and Effect in United States History
It is very easy to get caught up as a teacher in how to best get lots of minutia and factoids into students heads quickly and efficiently.  However, if we can teach history not as a series of independent and unrelated events, but as a series of events that have a causal relationship that impact what happens next, this helps students grasp and understand contextualization.  For example, in the lead-up to World War I, students create a timeline of events that led to America entering the conflict.  As students examine the torpedoing of the Lusitania, unrestricted submarine warfare, the Zimmermann telegram, etc., they gain an understanding that it was not a random decision by President Wilson, but rather a series of events that precipitated the declaration of war.  This is what contextualization is: the background that sets the stage for a particular moment in American history.

Examine Contextualization with Current Events
I know what you are thinking, I have one school year (less if your school year starts in September) to get through 1491 to Present and now I am supposed to make this a current events class as well?  The answer is yes and no.  Will stuff from the news pages be content the students need to know for the exam: absolutely not.  However, it is a great opportunity for students to understand that our past explains why our country is what it is today.

For example, President Obama’s decision to work towards normalizing relations with Cuba makes more sense if students think about it through the lens of contextualization.  The United States invaded Cuba in 1898 in the Spanish-American War and set up a protectorate.  Cubans, upset with what they perceived as U.S. meddling and intervention led a communist revolution in 1959, ousting the American-backed government and setting the stage for one of the scariest moments in the Cold War: the Cuban Missile Crisis.  Looking at how the past shapes current events today helps students understand this skill, and it also helps them gain a deeper appreciation of how important history is in shaping the world around them.

Any time changes happen, there is a temptation to be reactionary and reject them.  I have found that by being more deliberate about helping students understand historical context, their engagement and understanding have improved significantly.  Teachers always are fighting that battle between covering the content (which is daunting in an AP course) and helping students understand the “so what?” question.  Why does this matter to me?  By making connections, students can see that history does not every happen in a vacuum.  Our shared narrative is a series of events and ideas that continuously evolve and build off of each other.  When students gain a firm understanding of how the past impacts their lives today, it makes learning way more meaningful and fun.

Contextualization is tough for students at first, but it is a skill application that can be perfected and improved to maximize your students’ chances of earning that point and rocking the AP exam.

Looking for AP US History practice?

Kickstart your AP US History prep with Albert. Start your AP exam prep today.

Ben Hubing is an educator at Greendale High School in Greendale, Wisconsin.  Ben has taught AP U.S. History and AP U.S. Government and Politics for the last eight years and was a reader last year for the AP U.S. History Short Answer.  Ben earned his Bachelors degree at The University of Wisconsin-Madison and Masters degree at Cardinal Stritch University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

US History Regents Thematic Essay Topics and DBQ since 2004 (United States Regents Review Sheet)

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

NOTE - THE COMPLETE ESSAYS AND EXAMS CAN BE FOUND AT THE BOARD OF REGENTS WEBSITE. THIS IS MERELY A BRIEF SUMMARY OF WHAT THE ESSAYS WERE ABOUT.

2017

January

THEMATIC - Cultural and Intellectual Life: Effects of the Media - Describe and show positive/negative effects of the media on US society. (muckrakers, Uncle Tom's Cabin, yellow journalism, fireside chats).

DBQ - Presidential proposals and battles with Congress:  Polk and Mexican War, Reconstruction, FDR and Supreme Court decisions.

 

2016

January

THEMATIC - Foreign Policy - Latin America and Caribbean - Analyze the historical circumstances and success/failures of two US foreign policies in the Western Hemisphere. (Panama Canal, Monroe Doctrine, Corollary, NAFTA)

DBQ - Conflicts between the three branches of government: Jackson vs. Marshall, Nixon's Watergate, Wilson's Treaty of Versailles)

June

THEMATIC - Reform Movements - Describe reform movements from 1820-1933 and evaluate their success. (Women's suffrage, prohibition, consumer protection, labor)

DBQ - Causes and effects of the Spanish-American War, Korean War, and Persian Gulf War.

August

THEMATIC - Economic Policy - Causes and degree of success concerning economic policy. (Sherman Anti-Trust Act, New Deal legislation such as Social Security, NAFTA)

DBQ - Causes and effects of migrations within the US: Westward migration, Great Migration (African Americans in 20th Century), Sun Belt.

 

 

2015

January

THEMATIC - Legislation. Choose two laws, explain them, and show their impact on the United States and/or American society. (Missouri Compromise, Homestead Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, Title IX)

DBQ - Controversial Presidential decisions: FDR and Japanese Internment, Lincoln and suspending habeas corpus, and George W. Bush's Patriot Act. 

June

THEMATIC - Organizations - Explain the circumstances surrounding the formation of two organizations, and discuss the degree to which their reform efforts were successful. (Populists, WCTU, AFL, NAWSA)

DBQ - Presidential Actions and their influence on society: Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Policy, Civil rights of LBJ, and  TR's consumer protection)

August

THEMATIC - Foreign Policy - Select two foreign policy decisions which were controversial. Explain why they were both opposed and supported. Discuss their impacts on the US and/or a foreign country. (Invasion of Iraq, Korea, Vietnam, Annexation of the Philippines)

DBQ - Challenges facing African Americans, industrial workers, and persons with disabilities.  

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2014

January

THEMATIC - Geography - Territorial Expansion. Explain how the US acquired 2 territories, and if they had a positive or negative impact. (Louisiana Territory doubles the size of the nation,  Alaska provides vast oil reserves, California becomes a free state in the controversial Compromise of 1850.)

DBQ - The similarities and differences between Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

 

June

THEMATIC - Change - Supreme Court Decisions. Choose two decisions, explain them, and show how they impacted the United States and/or American society.

DBQ - Influence of writers: Martin Luther King, Jr., Rachel Carson, and Betty Friedan. 

 

August

THEMATIC - Technology - Choose two inventions and show how they changed society. Illustrate why it was either a positive or negative change. (Cotton gin, automobile, nuclear energy, television)

DBQ - The impact of the Korean War, Vietnam War, and Persian Gulf War on the United States and/or another region.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips 

 

 

 

2013

January

THEMATIC - Government - Legislation. Choose 2 laws, explain their historical circumstances, and if they had a positive or negative impact. (Pure Food and Drug Act protects consumers, Social Security Act provides money for the elderly in the Great Depression, Indian Removal Act forces Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River).  

DBQ - Major events of the 1950s and their impacts on society. (Korean War, Montgomery Bus Boycott, and launching of Sputnik).

June

THEMATIC - Foreign Policy - National Interests. Choose 2 examples of foreign policy that affected US interests, and show if they were successful or not. (Open Door Policy, Korean War, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War, Panama Canal).

DBQ - Impact of Supreme Court Decisions on the United States. (Dred Scott Case takes away rights of slaves, Plessy v. Ferguson supports "separate but equal," Brown v. Board of Education gets rid of segregation in schools).

August 

THEMATIC - Foreign Policy - Cold War. Choose 2 examples of containment, and explain if those actions were successful in stopping the spread of communism. (Truman Doctrine, Korean War, Vietnam War, "Star Wars", Berlin Airlift).

DBQ - Issues that divided the nation (Ratification of the Constitution, Louisiana Purchase, extension of slavery).

 

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2012

August

THEMATIC - Reform movements: Industrialization. Choose two problems resulting from industrialization. Show how the government tried to fix each problem, and to what extent they were successful. (Overpopulation, pollution, nativism, unsafe food, trusts, exploitation of workers).

DBQ - Controversial Acts. Choose two of the following, and show both why the government supported the act, and why people opposed it: Executive Order 9066 (1942), Patriot Act (2001), and Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-1918)

June

THEMATIC - Foreign policy; Presidential Decisions. Choose two decisions, and show their impacts on BOTH the US and on a foreign country. (Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb, JFK quarantining Cuba, GW Bush's decision to invade Iraq).

DBQ - Movements in American History. Choose 2 of the following: Labor Movement, Women's Suffrage, or Abolition.

January

THEMATIC - Impact of Supreme Court cases. Choose two cases, and show their impact on American society. Use any two court cases you like!

DBQ - Sectionalism and differences between the North and South before the Civil War.

 

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2011

August

THEMATIC - Geographical features influencing history. Choose 2 events related to geography and explain the impacts of the event. (Erie Canal construction, Panama Canal, Transcontinental Railroad)

DBQ - Expansion of Democracy in America - Suffrage, Progressivism, etc)

June

THEMATIC - Amendments. Choose 2 Amendments and show how they impacted America (13th = Abolition, 17th = Direct Election of Senators, 19th = Women's Suffrage)

DBQ - Explain the differences and/or similarities of society in the 1920s and 1930s.

January

THEMATIC - Diversity and Court Cases. Choose 2 court cases that either limited or expanded the rights of specific groups. (Korematsu limited rights for the Japanese, Brown expanded Black rights, whereas Plessy limited them).

DBQ - Cold War ... analyze the events of Presidents JFK, Nixon, and Reagan

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

 

 

 

2010 

January

THEMATIC - Writing and Reform. Choose 2 writers, and show how they caused the government to act. (Upton Sinclair and meatpacking / FDA, Thomas Paine and the Revolution, Harriet Beecher Stowe and abolition)

DBQ - Explain how water affected the development of the US (Rivers, canals, etc)

June

THEMATIC - Positive and negative affects of technology. Choose 2 ... Car, internet, television, radio)

DBQ - Reform Movements - Women's Suffrage, Temperance, Child Labor. What was the problem? To what extent was the problem solved?

August

THEMATIC- Choose 2 Presidential decisions in American history, and show the impacts. (Lincoln and emancipation, Truman and the atomic bomb, Washington and Neutrality.)

DBQ - Negative and positive effects of geography on American History.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2009

January

THEMATIC - Pieces of writing that influenced society. Choose 2 (Thomas Paine's Common Sense, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.)

DBQ - The decisions of the Warren Court (Supreme Court of the 50s and 60s)

June

THEMATIC - Discrimination of rights. Explain policies that helped, or hurt specific groups. Choose 2. (Native Americans and Indian Removal, Korematsu case for the Japanese, slavery for African Americans)

DBQ - Impact of industry on American society from the Civil War to WWI

August 

THEMATIC - Supreme Court Cases. Choose 2, explain the historical circumstances, decision, and impact. (Brown, Korematsu, Miranda, Tinker, Schenck, Gideon, Mapp, etc)

DBQ - Challenges facing Presidents Washington, Lincoln, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2008

January

THEMATIC - Groups affected by War. Choose 2 (African Americans after the Civil War, Indian Wars, women in WWI and WWII, Japanese in WWII)

DBQ - Reformers of the 19th and 20th Centuries. Abolition, Populism, Progressive Era)

June

THEMATIC - Change by individuals other than Presidents. Choose two, and show how their actions led to government actions. (Muckrakers, Carnegie and industrialization, Martin Luther King Jr., and civil rights, Henry Ford and the automobile)

DBQ - Presidential actions during crisis. Civil War, Bonus March, and Little Rock 9.

August

THEMATIC - Economic Policy. Describe two actions taken by the government to help the economy. (FDR's New Deal, Tariffs, Social Security, Reagan's tax cuts)

DBQ - Political and Economic impacts of the automobile.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

 

2007

January

THEMATIC - Geography - Discuss 2 actions taken by the US Government because of Geography. (Monroe Doctrine, Lewis and Clark, Homestead Act, Panama Canal)

DBQ - The Vietnam War and it's impact home and abroad.

 

 

 

June

THEMATIC - Industrialization: Choose two problems that resulted from industrial growth in America. (Immigration, Technology, Monopolies, Urbanization, Reform Movements.)

DBQ -  Similarities and differences between the women's rights and civil rights movements.

August

THEMATIC - Choose 2 individuals who had an impact solving problems in America. (Martin Luther King Jr., Jackie Robinson, Henry Ford Betty Friedan)

DBQ - Government policy and technology influencing growth in the US economy.

 

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2006

January

THEMATIC - Controversial Issues. Choose 2 controversial issues that divided the country and explain how the government addressed each issue. (Prohibition, Civil Rights, Segregation, Immigration, Native American Removal)

DBQ - Geography's influence on American expansion.

June

THEMATIC - Turning Points. Choose 2 economic, political, and/or social turning points that led to landmark changes. (Automobile, Brown v. Board of Education, Declaration of Independence, or really, anything important.)

DBQ - Mass Media's impact on American society.

August

THEMATIC - Migrations of People. Choose 2 groups, and explain why they moved, and the impact of the migration. (The Great Migration, Native American Removal)

DBQ - The Cold War's affect on the nation.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

 

2005

January

THEMATIC - Foreign Policy. Choose 2 American foreign policy actions, the immediate or long term consequences, and if self-interest was promoted. (Big Stick Diplomacy, Marshall Plan, Lend-Lease Act, Fourteen Points)

DBQ - Goals of the Progressive Reformers.

 

 

 

June

THEMATIC - Reform Movements. Choose 2 Reform movements, their goals, and if their goals were achieved. (Abolition, Prohibition, Women's Suffrage, Progressive Era)

DBQ - Foreign Policy: Isolation vs. War before WWII.

August

THEMATIC - Cold War. Explain 2 Cold War conflicts and how the government operated during them. (Cuban Missile Crisis, nuclear weapon limits of SALT, Berlin Airlift)

DBQ - Problems in America during the Great Depression.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

 

2004

January

THEMATIC - Amendments. Choose 2, and explain why they were adapted, and how they affected American society. (any amendment will do)

DBQ - Expanding education to all Americans.

June

THEMATIC - Actions taken by the US because of geographic factors. Choose 2. Explain the action, influences, and impact of each action. (Panama Canal, Monroe Doctrine, Louisiana Purchase)

DBQ - Civil War and Reconstruction -- explain social, economic, and political changes that took place.

August

THEMATIC - Reform Movements. Choose 2, and explain the circumstances and impact. (Progressive Era, Abolition, Prohibition, Women's Suffrage)

DBQ - Westward Expansion during the 1800s.

Thematic and DBQ Writing Tips

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