Gender roles are separate patterns of personality traits, mannerisms, interests, attitudes, and behaviors that are regarded as either "male" or "female" by one's culture. Gender roles are largely a product of the way in which one was raised and may not be in conformance with one's gender identity. Research shows that both genetics and environment influence the development of gender roles. As society changes, its gender roles often also change to meet the needs of the society. To this end, it has been suggested that androgynous gender roles in which both females and males are expected to display either expressive (emotion-oriented) or instrumental (goal-oriented) behaviors as called for by the situation may be better for both the individual and the society in many ways. However, this is not to say that traditional roles, reversed roles, or anything in between are inherently bad. More research is needed to better understand the influences of genetics and environment on the acquisition of gender roles and the ways in which different types of gender roles support the stability and growth of society.
Keywords Androgyny; Culture; Dyad; Gender; Gender Identity; Gender Role; Gender Stereotype; Norms; Sex; Socialization; Society; Subject; Twin Study
Gender roles have changed in many ways throughout history as well as within recent memory. In the 1950s, for example, little girls were said to be made of "sugar and spice and everything nice" and wore pastel organdy dresses and gloves to church. In the 1960s and 1970s, however, this all changed for many women; bras were discarded, and patched jeans became de rigueur. In fact, each succeeding generation has brought with it differing expectations for how men and women should act within society. Despite these changes, however, the truth is that modern society still has expectations for how men and women are to act. Although we may be more open to exceptions than were past generations, there still are expected norms of behavior for women and men in society.
Gender vs. Sex
In biosocial terms, gender is not the same as sex. Gender refers to the psychological, social, cultural, and behavioral characteristics associated with being female or male. Gender is defined by one's gender identity and learned gender role. Sex, on the other hand, refers in this context to the biological aspects of being either female or male. Genetically, females are identified by having two X chromosomes and males by having an X and a Y chromosome. In addition, sex can typically be determined from either primary or secondary sexual characteristics. Primary sexual characteristics comprise the female or male reproductive organs (i.e., the vagina, ovaries, and uterus for females and the penis, testes, and scrotum for males). Secondary sexual characteristics comprise the superficial differences between the sexes that occur with puberty (e.g., breast development and hip broadening for women and facial hair and voice deepening for men).
Biology as Gender Role Determinant
It is relatively easy to see that biology has an impact on gender and the subsequent actions and behaviors that are thought to be more relevant to either females or males. For example, no matter how much a man might want to experience giving birth, the simple fact is that he cannot, except as an observer. From this fact it is easy (if not necessarily logical) to assume that biology is destiny and, therefore, women and men have certain unalterable roles in society—for example, that women are the keepers of home and hearth because of their reproductive role, while men are the protectors and providers because of their relatively greater size and strength. However, before concluding that biology is destiny in terms of gender roles, it is important to understand that not only do gender roles differ from culture to culture, they also change over time within the same culture. Early 20th-century American culture emphasized that a woman's role was in the home. As a result, many women did not have high school educations and never held jobs; instead, they quite happily raised families and supported their husbands by keeping their households running smoothly. Nearly a century later, this gender role is no longer the norm (or at least not the only acceptable norm) and sounds quite constricting to our more educated, career-oriented 21st-century ears. If biology were the sole determinant of gender roles, such changes would not be possible.
Culture as Gender Role Determinant
In 21st-century United States culture, gender roles continue to be in a state of flux to some extent, although traditional gender roles still apply in many quarters. For example, boys are often encouraged to become strong, fast, aggressive, dominant, and achieving, while traditional roles for girls are to be sensitive, intuitive, passive, emotional, and interested in the things of home and family. However, these gender roles are culturally bound. For example, in the Tchambuli culture of New Guinea, gender roles for women include doing the fishing and manufacturing as well as controlling the power and economic life of the community. Tchambuli women also take the lead in initiating sexual relations. Tchambuli men, on the other hand, are dependent, flirtatious, and concerned with their appearance, often adorning themselves with flowers and jewelry. In the Tchambuli culture, men's interests revolve around such activities as art, games, and theatrics (Coon, 2001). If gender roles were completely biologically determined, the wide disparity between American and Tchambuli gender roles would not be possible. Therefore, it must be assumed that culture and socialization also play a part in gender role acquisition.
Society as Gender Role Determinant
Socialization is the process by which individuals learn to differentiate between what society regards as acceptable and unacceptable behavior and act in a manner that is appropriate for the needs of the society. The socialization process for teaching gender roles begins almost immediately after birth, when infant girls are typically held more gently and treated more tenderly than are infant boys, and continues as the child grows, with both mothers and fathers usually playing more roughly with their male children than with their female children. As the child continues to grow and mature, little boys are typically allowed to roam a wider territory without permission than are little girls. Similarly, boys are typically expected to run errands earlier than are girls. Whereas sons are told that "real boys don't cry" and are encouraged to control their softer emotions, girls are taught not to fight and not to show anger or aggression. In general, girls are taught to engage in expressive, or emotion-oriented, behaviors, while boys are taught to engage in instrumental, or goal-oriented, behaviors. When the disparity between the way they teach and treat their daughters and sons is pointed out to many parents, they often respond that the sexes are naturally different not only biologically but behaviorally as well.
The teaching of gender roles does not only come through obvious verbal teaching from parents and other elders in society; it also occurs in more subtle ways as well. Many people have observed that children's toys are strongly gender-typed. Girls are often given "girl" toys such as dolls, play kitchens, and similar toys that teach them traditional, socially approved gender roles for when they grow up. Boys, on the other hand, are often given sports equipment, tools, and toy trucks, all of which help prepare them to act within traditional male gender roles. Even if nothing is ever said to children about the gender-appropriateness of these toys, research has shown that by the time they reach school age, many children have already come to believe that professions such as physician, pilot, and athlete are the domain of men, while women are supposed to have careers as nurses, secretaries, or mothers (Coon, 2001).
To investigate the influence of gender-specific toys on the development of gender roles, Caldera and...
The thesis is the main point of your essay. Often, the thesis is stated clearly in one or two sentences at the end of the essay's introduction. This is called a thesis statement.
Does the thesis have to come at the end of the introduction?
There are exceptions to almost every rule of writing, including this one. There are times when the thesis statement is not presented until the very end of the essay--especially when there is a "surprise" aspect to the essay that might be ruined if the thesis statement came earlier.
However, unless you have a good reason not to, putting your thesis statement at the end of the introduction is a good idea because it often prevents the reader from getting confused about your essay's purpose (besides, it usually makes English instructors happy).
How do I know if my thesis statement is a good one?
Ideally, your thesis statement will be specific enough to give your reader a clear sense of what your entire essay is going to discuss.
The following thesis statement is much too vague:
Men and women are different.
Obviously, the reader would have no clue about which differences are going to be discussed, and the essay certainly isn't going to discuss all of them. The following thesis statement is better, but still a bit vague:
Men and women communicate differently.
Now the reader at least knows the essay will discuss communication differences. However, the thesis statement could be clearer still:
Whereas men tend to focus on the literal aspect of what is being said in a conversation, women often "read between the lines" and focus more on intonation and body language.
Now the reader has a clear sense of where the essay is going, but he or she may have one question remaining: "So what?" Often, a good thesis statement will begin to reveal the "so what?" of the essay:
Whereas men tend to focus on the literal aspect of what is being said in a conversation, women often "read between the lines" and focus more on intonation and body language; this phenomenon may significantly contribute to the high divorce rate in the United States.
I don't know what my thesis is yet, so how can I write my essay?
Do not be upset if you don't know precisely what your thesis is before you start writing. Very often writers don't know exactly what their thesis is until they have written a complete draft.
It is ok to start with a vague or tentative thesis statement in your first draft with the idea that you will revise it into something more specific. For example, a writer might start out with the following tentative thesis:
Recycling is important.
Then, after working through a draft, the writer may realize that the essay really explains how recycling paper can help save forests, which in turn can prevent certain species of animals from becoming extinct. It is important for the writer to then go back and revise the thesis statement so that it fits the essay better:
Although most people recognize that recycling is important, many do not realize that it can be directly responsible for the survival of a species.
Riminder: Before you turn in any essay double check to make sure that the thesis statement fits the essay. In other words, every paragraph in the essay should be discussing the topic presented in the thesis statement. Be prepared to revise the thesis statement or the essay so that the two fit together.
It is often easier to change the thesis statement than the rest of the essay, but if you do so, you may have to revise parts of the essay to make it fit the thesis.
Another good idea: Before you turn in your essay, go back and reread the explanation of the assignment provided by your instructor. Make sure that your thesis statement answers the question posed in the assignment and/or fulfills the requirements of the assignment (i.e. if the assignment asks you to compare and contrast two ideas, your thesis statement should compare and contrast two ideas).